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BBA Capstone Requirement

Students must elect at least one required capstone course in the Winter term* of their Senior (third) year in the BBA program. Capstone courses make connections between academic learning and the professional world; they include topics that address complex concepts, require diverse skills and perspectives, and are relevant to future professional endeavors. Some capstone courses also include an Action-Based Learning (ABL) component, allowing students to have a direct interaction with a client/stakeholder and a deliverable product that integrates learning and analysis and applies it to a real-world situation. Most capstone courses are three credits. Students can discuss their course selection and planning for a capstone course with their academic advisor. Grades in capstone courses will be distributed according to the elective distribution guidelines.  

Current Capstone Courses*

*Capstone course offerings are subject to change each semester. Capstones currently listed below may be removed and new capstone courses may be added periodically.  

Capstone Action-Based Learning

Business Administration 453 - Capstone MAP

Capstone Research/Thesis

Business Administration 380 – Senior Seminar (Thesis)  *course requires enrollment in both Fall and Winter terms

Professional Capstones

Accounting 418 – Financial Statement Analysis  

Business Economics 410 - Business Forecasting

Business Law 404 – Entrepreneurship Law 

Business Law 407 – Finance and Banking Law

Entrepreneurial Studies 414 – Entrepreneurship Practicum

Finance 422 - Behavioral Finance

Management and Organizations 468 - Thriving at Work (The Art and Science of Thriving in the New World of Work)

Strategy 492 - Developing Dynamic Capabilities for Corporate Development *not offered in Winter 2019

Technology and Operations 412 – Data Driven Management Decision Making

Technology and Operations 433 - Artificial Intelligence for Business

Technology and Operations 465 - Business Systems Consulting

Course Information

Students can access the archive of previous course syllabi via the Kresge Library database.

BA 453:
*information for Winter 2019

Course Description

Additional Information Provided by Faculty: Capstone MAP gives students the chance to work as a team on a hands-on project for a real-world company using a wide range of business skills and critical thinking.  Projects are sponsored by established companies, startups, and nonprofit organizations.  Guided by top Ross faculty members, students conduct original research, develop workable recommendations, and present their results to company executives.  The challenge is difficult, the work is real, and the experience is irreplaceable.

This course will help students refine the skills necessary to succeed in the workplace by empowering student teams to work independently, design their own schedules, and deliver results for real companies.  BA 453 will teach students to effectively design and organize projects, extract valuable information from multiple resources, and ultimately deliver productive and impactful solutions.  This course is a must-take for any student looking to nail future work projects and add value in their first professional role. 

After enrolling, you'll have the opportunity to bid for projects from a wide variety of sectors, including Real Estate, Energy, Transportation, Media, Non-profit, Start-ups, and many more.  You can also request projects that focus on a variety of disciplines, including finance, marketing, strategy, operations, etc.

Most teams will have three touch points with Executives from their sponsor company: at the beginning, middle, and end of the project.  After some initial training at the beginning of the course, student teams will be responsible for working autonomously to complete their project with weekly meetings with their faculty advisor.

Take this class if you want to:

  • Have a well-rounded experience that involves using your knowledge from marketing, strategy, and other core courses
  • Work outside the classroom on your own schedule
  • Make an impact in a local company or nonprofit
  • Develop translatable consulting experience
  • Network with others on campus and in your sponsor organization
  • Receive mentoring from MBAs and a diverse group of professors

Winter 2019 Projects: This year's project list can be found here and the full description of each project can be found here (the project descriptions may continue to be updated as more information becomes available).

The following videos show BBA seniors talking about their BA 453 experience - be sure to check them out!

BA 453 - Make an Impact

BA 453 - Work with Industry Leaders

BA 453 - Support Emerging Startups

**Please note, midpoint presentations for this course are the Friday before Spring Break, please see the FAQs for clarification on this and other common questions.**

ACC 418
*information for Winter 2019

Course Description 

Additional Information Provided by FacultyThe course presents an integrative framework for business analysis, business forecasting, and equity valuation using quantitative and qualitative financial information. In this important Capstone course, you will gain a rigorous understanding of the conceptual interdependencies between the various business theories you have been exposed to in other courses (for example, strategy, accounting, finance) and how to apply these concepts to make practical, real-world business decisions.

For example, we introduce stat-of-the-art data analytics tools to analyze a firm's financial performance to date, forecast its future performance and estimate its intrinsic value implied by these financial forecasts. Furthermore, we study the relation between a firm's business strategy and accounting numbers reported in financial statements, illustrate the latest techniques and information sources used by Wall Street professionals, discuss the impact of global and domestic economic trends on financial ratios used in performance evaluation, review the effect of managerial talent on the future financial success of a business, and learn how to convert qualitative data into quantitative value estimates.

This Capstone course includes real-world, action-based learning, cases that demonstrate the process of integrating various business theories and large amounts of data in an applied manner. For example, you will engage in a "live" forecasting exercise where students forecast a company's future quarterly performance. This project will involve retrieving real-time data about the industry, company, management plans, and analyst opinions, and apply the theoretical business analysis framework to construct financial forecasts. Once the company announces its financial results, we critically examine the reasons for any deviations between the forecasted and actual numbers.

As a final Capstone learning experience, students are engaged in a comprehensive final project. This project will require students to demonstrate the practical integration of several business disciplines to make an investment decision. This project has a written component as well as a short presentation in which the students demonstrate their ability to communicate complex business information in an effective manner.

The Financial Statement Analysis course is suitable for anyone pursuing careers in finance, consulting, accounting and is a must-take Capstone course for anyone interested in pursuing a career in the business world!

**Please note, ACC 312 is required for ACC 418.  ACC 312 must be completed or taken concurrently with this course.**

BE 410
*information for Winter 2019

Course Description 

Course Description: Making well-informed decisions usually requires making forecasts of relevant variables.  Therefore, good forecasts are more likely to produce good decisions.  The emphasis of this course is to build upon topics studied in students' courses thus far and learn statistical and econometric methods related to constructing and evaluating forecasts.  The goal of this capstone course is for students to obtain a hands-on experience with using economic and financial data to construct and evaluate forecasts.  Students will be expected to conduct various economic forecasting exercises using real data and work on a team research project in which they forecast variables of their choosing.

BL 404
*information for Winter 2019

Course Description

Course Information Handout

Additional Information Provided by Faculty: Law provides entrepreneurs with many opportunities for competitive advantage. This course offers an examination of various legal issues every entrepreneur should understand to make good business decisions. This course will address legal concerns that arise when leaving your current employer to start a business, creating an appropriate ownership structure, funding the venture, negotiating and contracting with vendors and customers, assembling your team, and global issues. This course will assist you in your ability to work with legal counsel.

This is a course for entrepreneurs and other business managers.

Legal matters are too important to delegate to persons who may not understand the broader business objectives. Entrepreneurs and managers need to understand the fundamentals of the law just as they need to understand the fundamentals of accounting, finance, and human behavior. As managers rise in the corporate hierarchy, they increasingly face legal issues they are ill equipped to handle. Most entrepreneurs and managers do not have a legal background. They often do not know the right answers or even the right questions to ask. If an entrepreneur is not sensitive to legal issues, he or she will not know when to call in the lawyers. Once the issue has turned into a problem, it is often too late to do anything other than damage control. For example, an entrepreneur planning to leave his or her current employer needs to know enough law to be sensitive to whether their activities violate trade secret laws, their fiduciary duties, or contractual restrictions on post-employment competition.

Proper use of the law and the legal system can increase realizable value and limit the downside risk. First, understanding law helps entrepreneurs and their financial backers position enterprises in the legal posture most suitable for their business. Many legal organizational structures and governance models are available. The structures offer different degrees of flexibility and freedom for the parties to define their relationships. Second, law protects a business from destructive competition by others. Law encourages competition on the merits, not on fraud and manipulation. Third, law can protect innovations by granting the inventors or their firm’s limited property rights.

GUEST SPEAKERS: We are fortunate this semester to have the opportunity to hear from some guest speakers. Our guest speakers are practitioners with experience with business startups – either as entrepreneurs themselves, advising entrepreneurs, or providing venture capital. The speakers will demonstrate the important and practical aspects of addressing legal concerns.

COURSE GRADE: The course grade will be based on 6 course projects [#1 Agreement between founders (10 points); #2 Contract Negotiation (10 points); #3 Contract Drafting (10 points); #4 Form of Business (10 points); #5 Assembling your Team (10 points); #6 Shark Tank (50 points)], case write-up assignments (20 points), and class participation (20 points).  Attendance and class participation will also be taken into account in the case of borderline grades. 

BL 407
*information for Winter 2019

Course Description

Course Syllabi (Winter 2017)

Additional Information Provided by Faculty

  • Learning Goals: BL 407 is designed to develop leaders of financial firms who are prepared to fulfill the legal aspects of their business responsibilities.  The course focuses on the circumstances leading up to the recent Financial Crisis and the legal and regulatory responses to the crisis. Students will leave this course with (1) relevant knowledge about the laws and regulations governing financial companies, (2) an understanding of how financial firms achieve competitive advantage by reducing legal risks and using the law to create economic value, and (3) well-reasoned views and opinions about financial regulation to contribute to future policy debates.
  • Class Format: The course is divided into six modules: Introduction to the Law of Finance; Commercial Banking; Investment Banking and Securities; Systemically Important Financial Institutions; Shadow Banking and Derivatives; and Corporate Governance, Supervision, and Enforcement.  Each module begins with class sessions in which students will learn pertinent legal principles through assigned readings, lectures, and in-class discussions.  Each module also includes one or more case studies drawn from real-world lawsuits or enforcement actions.  Case studies will challenge students to apply their knowledge and to create strategies for reducing legal risk and maximizing firm performance.
  • Team Project: Students will divide into teams to complete a semester-long project designed to (1) deepen understanding of the legal concepts discussed in class, (2) challenge students to identify relevant legal constraints governing financial firms, and (3) develop strategies for maximizing value in light of those constraints.  The team project demonstrates students' abilities to integrate concepts from across the BBA curriculum with the legal principles we student in this course.  By the end of the semester, each team must submit a 15-page written paper and deliver a 12-minute presentation to the class.  Project topics are discussed on pp. 3-5 of the course syllabus.
  • Who is this class for? The concepts explored in this course will form a valuable foundation for students pursuing careers in many fields, including investment banking, financial services, private equity, consulting, accounting, and law.

ES 414
*information from Winter 2018
*Winter 2019 updates coming soon!

Course Description

Course Information Handout

Additional Information Provided by Faculty: ES 414 will provide you with first-hand entrepreneurial experience within a structured, supportive context. You will have the opportunity to draw upon and apply the knowledge you have gained in previous classes. You will also learn – and put into practice – valuable new tools and techniques that can help you to successfully identify, assess, and pursue attractive business opportunities.

During the team projects, you will learn about a broad range of important entrepreneurial activities, including: Identifying significant unmet needs; Customer discovery; Solution ideation; Business model generation; Product and service development; Running “lean experiments”; Marketing and selling; and more.

In addition to team project work, ES 414 will include lectures and guest speakers, discussions and exercises designed to help you understand and apply these tools and techniques.

The Entrepreneurship Practicum will require creativity, resourcefulness, and hard work. But our goal is to make it a rewarding (and hopefully enjoyable) experience for those who participate. By the end, you should be able to identify and assess attractive business opportunities, know how to conduct experiments that yield actionable learnings, and have a better sense of how to foster an “entrepreneurial mindset.” Most importantly, you will have a deeper understanding of how to create value for your customers, for other members of the value chain/ecosystem, and for your company.

Should you take this course? Only if you…

  • Might one day want to start a business or social venture
  • Are interested in working for an existing startup, now or in the future
  • Plan to work at a large company or nonprofit organization and want to contribute to innovative projects that help drive the company’s growth

FIN 422
*information for Winter 2019

Course Description

Course Description: Finance 422 will survey developments in behavioral finance.  A great deal of recent research has focused on the behavior of individual investors and how that behavior deviates from the way in which individuals have been modeled by economists.  The findings are useful for individual investors who want to avoid making mistakes.  They are also useful for future managers that will supervise traders and for those that would like to trade opposite the investors with biases.  Finally, they can be useful for students that want to develop new finance technologies that help people avoid behavioral biases.  Beyond covering behavioral finance, the course will discuss some strategies to succeed in a world where some traders have biases.  Since FIN 422 is a professional capstone course, students will be expected to engage in behavioral finance research and submit a research paper at the end of the semester.

MO 468
*information from Winter 2018
*Winter 2019 updates coming soon! 

Course Description

Additional Information Provided by Faculty: As you launch your post-Ross journey you will experience a great deal of change.  Some of this change you can anticipate (new geography, new schedule, and new dress code, new boss, new coworkers).  Other changes may sneak up on you (personal impact of evolving business landscape, job loss, challenging relationships with managers & colleagues, changing personal priorities).  The course will introduce you to the science to help you learn to thrive for personal and professional success in the world of work.  

The new world of work might be characterized by more flexibility and uncertainty.  More people are switching jobs and careers at a more frequent clip.  Sometimes this is by choice to learn new skills or move up the career ladder.  Other times, employees may be choosing a more freelance or entrepreneurial career path.  And for others, the choice to change jobs may be forced through corporate restructurings or displacement due to technology.

Through this course you will reflect upon and synthesize your academic studies and action learning experiences to proactively craft a meaningful career and life.  Specifically you will learn to apply your research-based management knowledge to adapt to your evolving professional and personal priorities, and the changing business world.

*information from Winter 2018 
*course not offered in Winter 2019

Course Description

Course Information Handout

Additional Information Provided by Faculty: The course is an experientially-focused program on strategic growth – a challenge that faces small firms and large. We combine course work with a semester long strategic consulting project. This year we will be working with P&G and Avis Budget Group (on Zipcar). This capstone is ideal for students who are entering careers in consulting, investment banking, corporate finance, product management, and marketing.

The course is organized into these primary modules:

  1. The start-up: What are the challenges facing a start-up firm? How can an entrepreneurial firm grow given its financial and resource constraints? We focus on developing a sound business model and the importance of execution. 
  2. Beyond the early years: We focus on resource constrained firms who have been in existence for a few years but have been stagnating or growing slowly. We identify mechanisms for competing with limited resources against incumbents with path dependent advantages.
  3. Large firms: Large firms find it difficult to meet shareholders expectations for growth.  Since over half the value of the firm is dependent on its potential for growth, large firms have to explore and exploit opportunities. This module will examine the trade-offs that firms make as they look to maintain and grow the business.
  4. Competing in the new economy: The rules of competition have changed significantly as networks, standards, and platforms become increasingly important. We examine how firms gain competitive advantage in this new context.
  5. Mode of growth: We look at modes of growth comparing organic growth with alliances and mergers and acquisitions. Under what circumstances is a particular mode of growth preferred and what are the pitfalls in each mode is briefly discussed.

Throughout the course we will develop an understanding of how the resources and capabilities of a firm can be leveraged for organic growth and conditions under which firms have to go outside the firm for access to capabilities. Most often we use brief 4 to 5 page situation cases that ask you to become the decision maker. The discussion in class revolves around how to think about growth in different context and some of the more popular frameworks that could overcome the uncertainty involved in growth strategy. We use about ½ the class to develop an understanding of how to evaluate strategic growth options and ½ to work on projects. In addition, student teams will be required to meet with their MBA project advisor for ½ hour on a weekly basis.

There is a semester-long action learning project. Students work in small groups to conduct a strategic consulting project for a business. The project involves learning about the business, identifying potential growth avenues, and preparing a report on possible growth options for the firm. This year we will be working with P&G and the Avis Budget Group (Zipcar).

TO 412
*information for Winter 2019

Course Description

Course Information Handout 

Additional Information Provided by Faculty: This course teaches the basic tools in acquisition, management, and visualization of large data sets. Students will learn how to:

  • Store, manage, and query databases via SQL;
  • Quickly construct insightful visualizations of multi-attribute data using Tableau;
  • Use the Python programming language to manage data as well as connect to APIs to efficiently acquire public data (e.g. from Twitter).

After taking this course, students will be able to construct large data sets that source underlying data from multiple sources, and form initial hypotheses based on visualization.

Unique Setup. This course will include a large portion of hands-on work: after learning new material in a lecture, students will work in teams during class on an assigned list of tasks. Students will be guided to self-explore the three software tools by working collaboratively with their team members.  A final team project will enable students to integratively apply all the covered tools to a real-world context.

Guest Speakers. The course will include two guest lectures (speakers form IBM and Amazon), providing students with the opportunity to hear firsthand how Big Data is being used by industries for strategic advantage.

Programming. As the so-called digital economy grows, there is a growing need for analysts and managers who can either code by themselves, or understand enough of coding to have meaningful conversations with their programmers. Though programming is a big part of this course, no prior programming experience required for taking TO 412.

Career considerations. This course would be valuable for Students interested in:

  • Business analyst positions (e.g., in Amazon)
  • Jobs in Tech/Digital companies. Hands-on knowledge of the technical tools taught in this course would build credibility with your team.
  • Consulting jobs  (e.g. in ATKearney). Companies today build and use large data sets, and Excel is no longer suffice to deal with the variety of data sources and the data complexity. This course will prepare you to work with such big data sets.

Enrollment. There will be two sections with enrolment cap of 40 students per section.  The course will be taught in the technology classroom (“the classroom of the future”) where students will work in teams utilizing the large interactive screens in the classroom.

TO 433
*information for Winter 2019

Course Description

We are living in a fast changing world. The amount of information we generate, receive, and process is increasing at an exponential rate. This information explosion is empowering a wave of smart, automated functionalities broadly called Artificial Intelligence ("AI").  AI allows computers and machines to automate the business logic - to work and react like humans.  AI comes with a great promise for individuals, organizations, and societies but at the same time there are considerable risks, significant societal implications and ethical dilemmas.  This course aims to provide students with a conceptual introduction of AI, a broad understanding of AI's basic techniques, how AI is applied to problems, future applications of AI, and an awareness of the challenges, risks, and ethical considerations of use of AI in business.  The course does not require a technical background. Students will be able to connect the conceptual nature of this course with the more technical coverage of AI-related material in other TO courses - but they are not expected to be familiar with the technical details of AI as pre-requisites.

TO 465
(Consulting Capstone)

*information for Winter 2019

Course Description

Course Information Handout - sections 1 and 2

Course Syllabus (Winter 2019 draft)

Additional Information Provided by Faculty

  • Learning Goals:
    • Allow for the practical application of core disciplines
    • Learn and apply methods used by today's leading consulting firms
    • Prepare for entering the professional workforce and serving clients
    • To effectively complete the analysis and present financially justified recommendations, students will draw upon their prior Ross coursework and a variety of tools.  This will include work in requirements gathering, strategy development, spreadsheet modeling and simulation, proposal evaluation, financial planning, go-to-market development, and executive-level presentation.  In addition, students will gain exposure to fundamental consulting techniques including project methodology, deliverable creation, client expectation management, interviewing, workshop design and execution, persuasive presentation, remote delivery, and relationship development.
  • Class Format: The course simulates a consulting engagement.  Students work in teams to develop a business transformation strategy (mgmt. consulting). Final presentations are made to partners from top consulting firms (McKinsey & Co, Deloitte, Accenture, E&Y, etc.). See syllabus and flyer for more information. 
  • Who should take this class? Students entering consulting (mgmt., ops or technology) or any other professional services career that involves client service

Effective Fall 2018, the following courses no longer meet the capstone requirement: TO 482, MKT 401, and MO 463.