BBA: Grading Scales & Distribution

Students admitted between Fall 2014 and Fall 2017 (Sophomore start)

Students admitted as Freshmen in Fall 2017 and later and students admitted as Sophomores in Fall 2018 and later 

Students admitted between Fall 2014 and Fall 2017 (Sophomore start)

Grading System 

Grades are recorded by letter, but grade points are used to compute averages. Letter grades and the corresponding number of grade points for each hour of semester credit are as follows: 

  • A+ = 4.400
  • A = 4.000
  • A- = 3.700
  • B+ = 3.400
  • B = 3.000
  • B- = 2.700
  • C+ = 2.400
  • C = 2.000
  • C- = 1.700
  • D+ = 1.400
  • D = 1.000
  • D- = 0.700
  • E = 0.000
  • F, NR, X, I, Y = 0.000
  • A notation of P, F, CR, NC, S, U, Y, ##, or a missing grade does not affect a student’s term or cumulative grade point average.
  • No credit toward satisfaction of degree requirements is granted for courses in which grades of E, ED, F, I, Y, X and NR are received. Courses elected under the Pass/Fail, credit/no-credit and satisfactory/unsatisfactory policies are not considered in computing grade point averages.

Course Grading Distribution

The Dean’s Office and Faculty have set the following guidelines for grades issued in our undergraduate business classes.

Current BBA students earn credit toward degree requirements with any grade of D- or higher while in the Ross School of Business, although lower grades may cause the GPA to fall below satisfactory levels. This includes business and non-business courses, as long as the courses are not restricted from credit by other policies. 

  • A grade of E carries no credit; the course must be repeated only if it is a required course.
  • All BBA core classes grades are to be distributed as: ≤40% A- or above; ≤90% B or above; ≥10% B-or below.
  • In BBA elective classes grades are to be distributed as: ≤60% A- or above; ≤90% B or above; ≥10% B- or below.
  • NOTES:
    • For courses with multiple sections, instructors should use their judgment as to whether grade distributions are best applied within each section or overall for all their sections of a given course.
    • Core course coordinators and core instructors will work together to achieve consistency in grading policies used by faculty teaching the same course.
    • A+ grades are considered extraordinary and, if used at all, are reserved for the top 1-2% of students when those students truly outperform their peers.
    • The entire range of grades should be utilized as appropriate, including grades at the lower end of the distribution. 
    • A reasonable distribution of grades within a given allowed range is also expected.  For example, in the “A- or above” distribution range, there should be a relatively equal distribution across A and A- grades.
    • All faculty are expected to conform to the grading distribution.  The Associate Dean of the relevant program, the relevant Area Chair, and the Executive Committee will review adherence to these guidelines.

These grading guidelines are subject to review and change by the Dean’s Office and Faculty.

Incompletes and Special Grades

  • I = Incomplete: an Incomplete should be assigned when a particular student has already completed the majority of the course, but is not able to complete the remaining coursework by the deadline set for the entire class. The quality of the completed work must be of at least C- quality or better. This includes instances when a faculty member may approve delaying a final project or paper, or when an instructor may allow a later final exam. This also includes instances where the student provides documentation (medical or other) of the reason for the incomplete. The I grade simply denotes that the course was finished later than the normal class deadline.  A notation of I has no impact on a student's GPA.  Notations of I must be resolved and corrected within four weeks following the last day of classes of the term in which they were earned.  If the grades are not corrected within this period, they are automatically lapsed to failures (ILF).  These failing grades will stand unless the instructor allows the student to complete all requirements at a later time.  Extensions beyond the four-week time frame must be petitioned to and approved by the Academic Standards Committee.  In all instances, once the work is complete and evaluated, the I will remain on the student’s record with the final grade appended (e.g., IC).  Once an I has lapsed to failure or a final grade is submitted, then the corresponding grade (ILF, IC, etc.) will be counted in a student's GPA. 
  • NR = No Grade Reported: NR should be assigned when one of the following scenarios occur:
    • Student never attended class
    • Pending Community Values Committee (CVC) investigation
    • If not replaced by a passing grade, the NR will also lapse to ED (fail) four weeks after the end of the term.
  • Y = Extended Course: Y should be for a course approved to extend beyond one term. This code is rarely applicable. Contact rossregistrarsoffice@umich.edu for more information. A notation of Y will lapse to ED one year after the end of the term, at which point it will be computed into academic standing as a failing grade.

Students admitted as Freshmen in Fall 2017 and later and students admitted as Sophomores in Fall 2018 and later

Grading System 

Grades are recorded by letter, but grade points are used to compute averages. Letter grades and the corresponding number of grade points for each hour of semester credit are as follows: 

  • A+ = 4.00
  • A = 4.000
  • A- = 3.700
  • B+ = 3.300
  • B = 3.000
  • B- = 2.700
  • C+ = 2.300
  • C = 2.000
  • C- = 1.700
  • D+ = 1.300
  • D = 1.000
  • D- = 0.700
  • E = 0.000
  • F, NR, X, I, Y = 0.000
  • A notation of P, F, CR, NC, S, U, Y, ##, or a missing grade does not affect a student’s term or cumulative grade point average.
  • No credit toward satisfaction of degree requirements is granted for courses in which grades of E, ED, F, I, Y, X and NR are received. Courses elected under the Pass/Fail, credit/no-credit and satisfactory/unsatisfactory policies are not considered in computing grade point averages.

Course Grading Distribution

The Dean’s Office and Faculty have set the following guidelines for grades issued in our undergraduate business classes.

Current BBA students earn credit toward degree requirements with any grade of D- or higher while in the Ross School of Business, although lower grades may cause the GPA to fall below satisfactory levels. This includes business and non-business courses, as long as the courses are not restricted from credit by other policies. 

  • A grade of E carries no credit; the course must be repeated only if it is a required course.
  • All BBA core classes grades are to be distributed as: ≤40% A- or above; ≤90% B or above; ≥10% B-or below.
  • In BBA elective classes grades are to be distributed as: ≤60% A- or above; ≤90% B or above; ≥10% B- or below.

These grading guidelines are subject to review and change by the Dean’s Office and Faculty.

Incompletes and Special Grades

  • I = Incomplete: an Incomplete should be assigned when a particular student has already completed the majority of the course, but is not able to complete the remaining coursework by the deadline set for the entire class. The quality of the completed work must be of at least C- quality or better. This includes instances when a faculty member may approve delaying a final project or paper, or when an instructor may allow a later final exam. This also includes instances where the student provides documentation (medical or other) of the reason for the incomplete. The I grade simply denotes that the course was finished later than the normal class deadline.  A notation of I has no impact on a student's GPA.  Notations of I must be resolved and corrected within four weeks following the last day of classes of the term in which they were earned.  If the grades are not corrected within this period, they are automatically lapsed to failures (ILF).  These failing grades will stand unless the instructor allows the student to complete all requirements at a later time.  Extensions beyond the four-week time frame must be petitioned to and approved by the Academic Standards Committee.  In all instances, once the work is complete and evaluated, the I will remain on the student’s record with the final grade appended (e.g., IC).  Once an I has lapsed to failure or a final grade is submitted, then the corresponding grade (ILF, IC, etc.) will be counted in a student's GPA. 
  • NR = No Grade Reported: NR should be assigned when one of the following scenarios occur:
    • Student never attended class
    • Pending Community Values Committee (CVC) investigation
    • If not replaced by a passing grade, the NR will also lapse to ED (fail) four weeks after the end of the term.
  • Y = Extended Course: Y should be for a course approved to extend beyond one term. This code is rarely applicable. Contact rossregistrarsoffice@umich.edu for more information. A notation of Y will lapse to ED one year after the end of the term, at which point it will be computed into academic standing as a failing grade.